Stainless steel one of the most popular and widely used material that is a group of large ferrous alloys who are rust-free. Most iron alloys are not rust-resistant that is why they are not widely used now. The Stainless steel has a stable passivation layer on it which saves it from the rust, air, and moisture. Due to its resistance feature, it is widely used for many applications such as outdoor, aqueous, food services, and high-temperature products.
In this article, we will discuss a complete guide to, how it is produced, working, types of stainless steel, grades, and applications of stainless steel castings.
How Stainless Steel Casts?
Stainless Steel Casting is the process of making stainless steel. It is done by pouring the liquid metal into the desired shape molding container for solidification in order to get a specific shape stainless steel.
The stainless steel objects are usually made in a foundry or with the foundry’s supervision. If small products are making from foundry then its assembly to create large products is done on the other side of the factories.
What Is Stainless Steel Made Up Of?
Like all other steels, stainless steel is also made up of a start mixture of carbon and iron. As it is also made from the same material then what makes the stainless steel different is 10.5% chromium that gives it the feature of resistance to oxidation. Whenever stainless steel comes in contact with the atmosphere, the 10.5% chromium starts to combine with oxygen which makes a thin and stable passivation layer that protects it from rust and oxidization.
Some steels are coated with the chromium, zinc, or nickel in order to protect it from oxidization and rust. But after a scratch the plating removes and the rusting can occur. In stainless steel, it is some other kind of layering that protects it even after scratch. The chromium inside stainless steel does more than just protection that it makes a passive film when it is exposed to air or oxygen.
Types of Stainless Steel Casting
There is a wide range of stainless steel casting types, all of them are listed below:
- Austenitic Stainless Steel Casting
- Martensitic Stainless Steel Casting
- Ferritic Stainless Steel Casting
- Duplex Stainless Steel Casting
Grades of Stainless Steel Casting
The grades of stainless steel casting give an idea that to which family steel belongs. The most common ones are listed below:
- 304: Commonly Used Austenite Steel also known as A2 Stainless.
- 304L: It is a slightly lower mechanical one but is also widely used.
- 316: It is also the most used austenite steel that is also known as A4 stainless. It is used to increase the resistance to corrosion.
- 316L: Same as 316 just lower in carbon that reduces the sensitization effects which occurs during high-temperature such as welding.
- 2205-Duplex: It is also a good stainless steel grade with much better mechanical properties than others and also has excellent corrosion resistance properties.
- 430: It is Ferritic steel which is widely used steel.
- PH17-4: It is a common type of precipitation-hardening martensitic steel that is made up of 4% nickel and 17% chromium.
Stainless Steel Mechanical Properties
Stainless Steel is popular and commonly used due to its property of the resistance against corrosion. Due to its hardness, response to work hardening, toughness, strength, yield, and weldability makes it incredible steel among other steels. It is the most used steel in engineering, construction, and manufacturing of products. We will look at the properties of stainless steel that makes it different from other materials.
Hardness is the main feature of steel and the 2 tests which are done on steel hardness are Brinell and Rockwell. We will look into both tests. The first test is Brinell in which a small hardened steel ball is forced to steel by giving a standard load to it and then the diameter of the result is measured. The second test is Rockwell that helps to measure the depth of indentation. You can even increase the hardening of steel by doing cold-working on it which is also famous as work-hardening.
The second property of steel is toughness which is tested under very localized stress. The result after toughness should be the steel remains resistant to cracks. A simple test is conducted to measure the toughness of steel. A sample bar of steel is notched to localized stress and after that, it is struck by a swinging pendulum. The energy is then measured which was lost in struck of the pendulum. This test clears the toughness of steel.
After these properties tests, the final stainless steel is made according to the desired shape and sizes.